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The water infrastructure of Rome was expanded during the reign of Nero. As part of Nero's extensive building program both before and after the fire, the Aqua Claudia was extended via a branch line, the Aqua Neroniana, to run along the Caelian hill where it terminated in a monumental castellum, or distribution chamber. The castellum made use of an existing, although incomplete temple, the "Templum Divii Claudii", located on the top of the Caelian hill. From here water was distributed to the enormous artificial lake, the "Stagnum Neronis" that filled the area now occupied by the Coliseum. Nero also sponsored construction of the "Thermae Neronianae" (Baths of Nero) near the Thermae Agrippae in the Campus Martius. Nero's Baths were sited to take advantage of the parks and waterworks associated with the Agrippan Baths.Another important project sponsored by Nero was the "Pons Neronianus" (Nero's Bridge), which crossed the Tiber River to connect the Campus Martius to the "Circus Gaii et Neronis" (Circus of Gaius and Nero), which was laid out under Caligula and completed under Nero.

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