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The most important change to the urban fabric of Rome during the reign of Aurelian was the construction of the Aurelian Walls. A large grain mill complex, the Molinae Janiculus, was built atop the Janiculum hill. It used water power from the Aqua Traiana and for defensive reasons, it was enclosed by an extension of the Aurelian Walls into the Transtiberim. At this time the Aqua Virgo was diverted to the new bridge, the Pons Aurelius, and extended into the Transtiberim area. The Thermae Diocletiani, the largest of the Imperial baths was built under Diocletian atop to Quirinal hill, which was leveled in order to create the building site. The earth that was removed from the hilltop was relocated to the Valle Sallustiana, just to the north, thus raising the level of the valley and completely altering its topography. A short branch line of the Aqua Marcia, and a new distribution castellum were built specifically for the baths. Maxentius was responsible for the construction of the Basilica Maxentius near the Forum Romanum and for a restoration of the Aurelian Walls. He was also responsible for the restoration of a small bath complex within the palace complex on the Palatine.

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