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The Early Republic was a time of tremendous growth in Rome, but there may not have been any significant innovations in water management. Rather it appears that there was a continual refinement of existing infrastructure. Port facilities were expanded as trade became more important. Large numbers of cisterns and wells became necessary as the population increased. Many of these wells were located along public roads and were probably designated for public use. The so-called "Servian Walls" were constructed bringing the Quirinal, Esquiline and Caelian hills into the city. Natural springs now located within the city walls, were contained by fountain structures. Important fountains, such as that at the Spring of Juturna, grew in importance as civic landmarks and became more elaborate.

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